What is R 1, 3-butanediol?
R-1,3-BDO is a drinkable ketone which could increase blood ketone levels after consumed. Elevated blood ketone levels can focus attention, improve endurance, and restore physical strength. Studies have shown that R-1,3 BDO is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when administered orally. After absorption, it is metabolized to β-hydroxybutanal, which in turn is oxidized to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutanal, and the final metabolites are acetoacetic acid and acetyl-CoA, which enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle to produce carbon dioxide and reducing equivalents, which are converted to ATP through the electron transport chain. 1g of R-BDO provides about 6.5 kcal/g of heat. It differs from D-BHB in that unlike D-BHB, which needs the help of MCT transporters to enter cells, R-BDO is passive diffuser and can enter cells directly.
|Image Source：Puchalska, Patrycja & Crawford, Peter. (2017). Multi-dimensional Roles of Ketone Bodies in Fuel Metabolism, Signaling, and Therapeutics. Cell Metabolism. 25. 262-284. 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.12.022.
1、Nutritional supplements to provide energy
3、Regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
4、Relieve the lactic acid swelling sensation after strenuous exercise
5、Improve your concentration
6、Improve athletic performance
There have been many studies on the use of 1, 3-butanediol in food products abroad. A large number of studies have shown that 1, 3-butanediol is safe when taken within reasonable limits and does not affect human reproductive function and organs. The maximum estimated daily exposure to R-1,3 BDO is 50 g/ day or 710 mg/kg body weight/day, which is equivalent to a dose well tolerated in human clinical studies. R-1,3 BDO is provided for consumption by a portion of the general population considered "healthy" consumers as an ingredient in specialty beverages (as a source of ketone precursor compounds that promote the body's natural metabolic processes). Based on the totality of evidence available on the toxicological data of R-1,3 BDO, it can be concluded that R-1,3 BDO can be regarded as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredient, as an ingredient in specialty beverages, with a maximum intake of 50 g/person/day. Therefore, the daily intake (EDI) of R-1,3 BDO is estimated to be <50 g/day (approximately 710 mg/kg bw/day, assuming 70 kg BW).
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